El realismo mágico es un género literario, cuyo nombre está compuesto por dos palabras que parecen contradecirse. El realismo abarca la apropiación de la realidad por parte de la literatura, un mundo con límites, que se encarga de tomar aquello que es material, dejando en evidencia un espejo de la realidad. Por su parte, lo mágico es lo que se opone a la realidad, trascendiendo los límites. De esta forma, se puede definir al realismo mágico como el género en cuyos textos la realidad histórica y el mundo de los sueños conviven armónicamente, sin perturbar a nadie y con normalidad, poetizando al mundo. Este género, surgido en Latinoamérica en el siglo XX, permitió trascender la realidad opresiva de la época, por lo que se puede considerar que tiene un componente utópico. Esto se debe a que surgió como un escape a la realidad, yéndose al mundo de los sueños, donde aparece la magia mostrando la posibilidad de otra realidad sin los límites opresivos de la época, lo que permite ilusionarse.
Gabriel García Márquez cultivó el realismo mágico en sus textos, entre estos en el reconocido libro “Del amor y otros demonios”. En este, se presentan las diversas características y técnicas narrativas que permiten definir a este género. A lo largo del texto, diferentes situaciones permiten a los lectores reconocer diferentes aspectos del realismo mágico. La naturaleza, como característica, y la ruptura de la causalidad tradicional, como técnica narrativa, se ven particularmente representados en una parte específica de esta obra, permitiendo aquí reconocer al realismo mágico en su máxima expresión. En el segundo capítulo del texto, se introduce la vida del marqués, desde que este era joven hasta el nacimiento de su hija. En este tiempo, los lectores permiten conocer al marqués, y a todos sus amores. Él estaba enamorado de Dulce Olivia, una mujer loca proveniente del manicomio. El padre del marqués no aprobaba la elección de su hijo, y al saber que este pediría la mano de Olivia, optó por desterrarlo. Aquí es cuando el realismo mágico se hace presente, dejando en evidencia cómo la naturaleza trasciende los límites, y como la causalidad tradicional se rompe. Márquez expresa:
Al primer año de destierro lo despertó un fragor como de los ríos crecidos, y era que los animales de la haciendo estaban abandonando sus dormideros a campo traviesa y en silencio absoluto bajo la luna llena. Derribaba sin ruido cuando les impidiera el paso en línea recta a través de dehesas y cañaverales, torrenteras y pantanos. Delante iban los hatos de ganado mayor y las caballerías de carga y paso, y detrás los cerdos, las ovejas, las aves de corral, en una fila siniestra que desapareció en la noche. Hasta las aves de vuelo largo, incluidas las palomas, se fueron caminando.
Gabriel García Márquez permite explorar el realismo mágico mediante esta cita, ya que la misma presenta una situación en la que se trascienden los límites de la realidad. Toda clase de animales caminaban en línea recta bajo la luna, hasta las aves a las que se las conoce por volar también caminaban en esta fila. Esto muestra lo indomable de la naturaleza, que opera como una fuerza misteriosa y omnipresente, que no tiene explicación alguna. El realismo mágico no solo es visto mediante esta característica sino que también puede apreciarse la ruptura de la causalidad tradicional, en donde lo esperable y cotidiano se vuelve inesperado/extraño, y viceversa. Mediante esta cita, se puede reconocer como lo inesperado y extraño se toma como la normalidad, justificando y verificando, una vez más, como la realidad histórica y el mundo de los sueños conviven armónicamente, con total normalidad en este género. El marqués, no se sorprende ni muestra “shock” alguno al ver a los animales caminando en línea completamente recta, sino que actúa con total normalidad. Esto permite, mediante esta cita, completamente identificar a este texto, “Del amor y otros demonios”, como una obra completamente propia del realismo mágico.
Gender inequality is a problem all around the world, in which one gender has advantages over the other in many aspects of life, without taking into account that we should all have equal rights. This happens in many countries, although in some countries this is much more present. Nowadays, this topic is really discussed, as one of the main objectives of the century of numerous women is to achieve gender equality. This does not only occur in countries where this inequality happens constantly, but also in nations where this difference in rights between men and women can be slightly seen, but still there is struggle to achieve total equality. I decided to develop this topic as it is something that it is present nowadays all around the world, and that it is something that will determine the future in which I will live.
As this final work, I chose to tackle the problem of gender inequality nowadays. After some research I tried to find a country where this difference in rights was really remarkable. Finally, I decided to focus on India, where this inequality can be seen in their everyday lives. India is an Asian country ruled by Ram Nath Kovind. Gender inequality in India constantly put women in disadvantage in almost every aspect of society, including medical care, education and job opportunities and participation in politics. I chose India as the country to focus as it is a place where the inequality is really extreme and where the fight and struggle from women is really active, to try to solve and revert this situation.
The participants in this problem include women, government and society. Women are the ones that suffer as a consequence of gender inequality, women of all ages. As a way of protest they are forced to constantly fight for something that should be already granted for the simple fact of being humans, equal to men. This leads to many activists, as writers, who are becoming famous promoting this struggle. Not only women, but this conflict also involves the government, who has the responsibility of changing this reality for women. Although the actual government of India, with Ram Nath Kovind as president, publicly expresses his concern and the need of a more equal society, their measures are not efficient, which is a sufficient reason making gender equality in India still something impossible. This produces a fight between society, whose protagonists are women craving for equal rights, against government whose measures and speeches promising equality are not real or enough.
When India’s population is examined as a whole, women are at a disadvantage in several aspects of life. Discriminatory attitudes towards women have existed for many generations, and it is something that could not be eradicated yet. The Indian Constitution grants men and women equal rights, but gender disparities remain. A great example is in the matter of jobs opportunities and payment, where men are paid more than women, and where opportunities are highly better for one gender. This prevents women from career development and progress. Moreover, another aspect in which this disparities can be analysed is in the medical care, where women are more likely to have health disorders. Woman are condemned to fight since they are born. Sometimes they are unwanted, aborted or abandoned just for not being males. They are constantly afraid, as rapists, kidnappers and sometimes even family members are a threat for them.
Providing a solution is really difficult, as it involves a lot of factors and the participation of many. Government, society, activists and other countries too should work together and help towards this same objective of equality between men and women in India, and all around the world. I believe that marches, manifestations and struggles are excellent and effective ways to achieve gender equality. Making all population aware of this should have an impact, and making more people support the cause. As I said, manifesting this inequality is effective, but measures should also be taken to another length. I believe that encouraging women to participate in aspects like politics or introducing this problem to another sectors and inviting them to participate are good ways too. We, from the other side of the world, can support the cause by sending our strength to all fighters, an by extending this fight in our own country.
Women and men despair in India affects all the female gender in their daily life. I chose to show two testimonies by female Indian residents, who have to struggle constantly, and, just as a consequence of being woman, will have to continue fighting for the rest of their lives, daily. The testimonies portray the gender discrimination and violence women suffer in India. These type of information make people all around the world become aware of this tragic reality and encourages more people to join the fight, These are the testimonies;
“In New Delhi, there are 13 times more toilets for men than there are for women. Specifically, there are 3,712 male public toilets, and a mere 269 female toilets.
“Public Toilets in New Delhi are just one example of discrimination against women in India; it starts before women are even born, and continues throughout their entire life. Girls can be perceived as a financial burden in parts of India, as a result of their limited income opportunities and costly dowries; 500,000 Indian girls have died as a result of pre-natal sex selection and infanticide over the last 20 years.
If a bride can’t fulfill her dowry, she faces the risk of torture and death at the hands of her in-laws. Nearly 7,000 Indian women were killed for being unable to meet the financial requirements of their dowries, some of them as young as 15 years old.
Indian women are humiliated, abused, and killed every day. Before they are even born, their opportunities and experiences are decided for them. They will face violence and inequality at almost every turn; and even something as simple as access to public restrooms is not guaranteed for them.
There are ways to encourage gender equality in India, though they may be easier said than done. Laws that discriminate against women need to be amended; girls need to be educated to level the intellectual playing field, and India’s practice of perceiving men above women, needs to be addressed for change to last.”
Respiration + gas exchange
-Activity 11.3 (book page 143)
(Lime water & hydrogen carbonate indicator→ to detect carbon dioxide)
A1; Why it is important to boil the water?
It is important to boil the water because doing so will take away any dissolved air.
A2; Why must the sugar solution be cooled before adding yeast?
The sugar solution must be cooled before adding the yeast because if the yeast is added before it is cooled (when water is hot) it will die without releasing carbon dioxide for the experiment.
A3; What is the liquid paraffin for?
The liquid paraffin is used to separate the yeast from the air (oxygen).
A4; What happened to the limewater or hydrogen carbonate indicator solution in each of your pieces of apparatus? What does this show?
The limewater turned cloudy in apparatus A . We can observe that the yeast respired CO2 and that the limewater absorbed it. However, in the other apparatus the yeast did not respired CO2, and therefore the lime water was clear and couldn´t absorb the carbon dioxide.
A5; I would expect to find ethanol (alcohol), as the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast results in the production of alcohol.
-Activity 11.8 (book page 149)
After reading An Eye for an Eye in class, and analyzing it, we wrote individually a diary entry;
Write a diary entry for Mary Banks as if you had just returned to your prison cell after your interview with Sir Matthew. Narrate the events that took place from your perspective. Include your feelings, impressions and future prospects.
Today I woke up extremely jittery as I knew Sir Matthew was going to submit me to an interview where I could not commit the slightest mistake, or my declaration would be ruined, as it finally happened.
When I was asked to go into the interviewing room I tried to relax and perform my role as a blind and innocent woman better than ever. The first questions were easy, as I had thought of the answers so many times. However, it all got complicated when the solicitors pitfalls to disprove my statements began.
Firstly, they dropped a cup of tea, thinking I would react and focus my eyes on the situation, but I was clever enough not to move my eyes. I realized the lawyers were impressed, so I thought I would be safe. Nevertheless their plan continued. My child was told to enter the room and smile at me, hoping I would return him the smile, or even look at him. When I was about to say something, I remembered I couldn’t so my eyes remained fixed between Sir Matthew and Mr Casson. In spite of the fact I could afford the first two obstacles, the last one was good enough to defeat me. Mr Witherington plucked out his eye without warning and started polishing the glass object. My first reaction was turning away, trying to avoid the disgusting situation. When I tried to compose myself again it was too late.
If only questions would have been present in the interview now I would be home. Now I am thinking of a new plan to convince the lawyers I am innocent although I am not blind. I will try to defend myself by saying it was an accident. My future depends on my lawyer. Seguir leyendo Diary entry-An Eye for an Eye