Archivos de la categoría Ingles

Letter to Cambridge University

Dear Sir / Madam

I am writing this letter in search of an art scholarship for the University of Cambridge, which is why I would be pleased to explain my annual school project and describe the process I have experienced until I got to the final product.

It was an easy task to discover what I wanted to do as a project since I knew that pencil-based black and white drawings was what I liked. After some classes, I discovered that applying values in the drawings could create a much more real job, and that’s what I did. My first idea was drawing only objects, but then I realised that I could greatly expand my range of drawings if I did not just focus on that. So, first I began to draw Piranesi’s prisons, and sometime later I draw landscapes of the sea.

I worked on this project throughout the year. As a guide, I used magazine photos and modified some details in my own way or imitated photos of artists like Piranesi or the photographer, Josef Hoflehner. The annual work showed that I enjoyed doing it and that as I did more drawings, I modified some ideas until I ´got to the final work. I learned a lot and by the end of this year I finally discovered what I liked, which was the aim of the project. After trying different types of paper sheets and trying to use char, I learned that the pencil and the drawings in a medium size is what I like.

I would be so grateful to study at Cambridge University, so I hope you receiving my letter. Thank you.

Yours faithfully,

Abril Terán Frias

 

Urinary System trash model

In our biology class, we were told to create a trash model of the urinary system.  As the task was in pairs, I worked with Valentina Re. Now, we are going to describe the process of how we did the model and explain the functions of each organ present in the system.

First, we look for a picture of the urinary system to know were each organ is supposed to be. This model should include the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, the urethra, the renal veins, the renal arteries, the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta.

Second, we started the model. For the kidneys, we used old newspapers and magazines. For the ureters, we used shoelaces. Then, for the bladder, we used a tolem lid and for the urethra, a wine cork. Moreover, for the renal veins and renal arteries, we used thread. Finally, for the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, we used straws.

Furthermore, we looked for the functions of each of this organs that form the urinary system. These are:

  • Kidneys are bean-shaped organs of a reddish brown color that are found in the sides of the vertebral column. Once the body has extracted what it needs from food and drink, it sends the wastes to the kidneys. The kidneys filter the wastes, including urea, salt and excess water, which are flushed out of the body as urine. Each kidney is supplied with blood from the renal artery
  • The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area.The tube has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which are able to contract.
  • The bladder, also known as the urinary bladder, is an expandable muscular sac that stores urine before it is excreted out of the body through the urethra. It is located in the lower abdominal area near the pelvic bones.
  • The Urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. It is responsible for allowing urine to leave the body as it empties from the bladder.
  • There are two renal veins, a left and a right. They branch off the inferior vena cava and drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys.As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts. The posterior veins assist in draining the back section of each kidney, while the anterior veins assist the front part. These veins also are responsible for draining blood from the ureter, which transports urine away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  • There are two blood vessels leading off from the abdominal aorta that go to the kidneys. The renal artery is one of these two blood vessels.The renal artery enters through the hilum, which is located where the kidney curves inward in a concave shape. Under normal circumstances, once the renal artery enters through the hilum, it splits into two main branches, which each then split into numerous smaller arteries, which deliver blood to different areas of the kidneys, known as nephrons.Once the blood has been processed here, it is sent back through the renal vein to the inferior vena cava and to the right side section of the heart.
  • The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart.
  • The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdomen that provides blood to the organs and tissues of the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. It descends from the thorax as a continuation of the thoracic aorta and branches several times to form the major arteries of the abdomen.

Finally, here we leave you a picture of our proyect finished:

Practical Skills – Carbon Dioxide and Lime Water

8/11

In biology class we did a practical with lime water. Lime water is reagent which indicates the presence of CO2. To be able to test this, we put 4 test tubes in a rack, each one containing lime water. Then, with four straws (one test tube each) we expired carbon dioxide with our mouth into the test tube, making the CO2 be in contact with the reagent. Finally, after blowing for some minutes, we realised that the lime water had turned cloudy. So, finally, we concluded that when carbon dioxide is present the lime water turns cloudy.

 

Essay Tiger in the Menagerie

 

This is the essay about the poem Tiger in the Menagerie we read in class.

Essay question: Explore how the author conveys mixed feelings about the tiger.

BRAINSTORMING

  • 2 body paragraphs
  • Deadly beauty →oxymoron (extended throughout the poem)
  • Stanza 1; Repetition of “too” represents an excess of beauty and at the same time an excess of wildness.
  • Stanza 1: “Too much like the painting of a tiger” → contrast between reality (wild) and appearance (beauty)
  • The tiger is sublime
  • Literary devices →Simile, anaphora, symbolism and oxymoron.
  • Explore→ colours, appearance vs reality and “too” to explain the deadly beauty.

 

       Essay:

   In the poem, Tiger in the Menagerie, Emma Jones conveys mixed feelings about a tiger by describing its deadly beauty. The author reinforces this idea throughout the text by exploring and contrasting its appearance with reality. I will explore, on the one hand, the two colours portrayed in the poem that contribute to the understanding , and on the other hand, the excess of the animal represented and explored by the author.

          On the one hand, the writer, uses the colours blue and orange to explore the sublime of the tiger, as the animal is presented as bright and beautiful, but its dark side may be revealed by attacking. The colour orange is portrayed in the poem symbolising the warmth, perfection and brightness of the beast. However, the authority of the animal is also represented, by the colour blue. The tiger being “Too blue” shows a negative excess of wildness and danger. As the creature is the authority it is always watching, surveilling and controlling. The beast represents the concept of deadly beauty as an extended oxymoron throughout the poem, which is expressed by the contrast of the two colours.

           On the other hand, Tiger in the Menagerie portrays and repeats the word “too” throughout the poem to reinforce the idea of an excess of the animal. The writer comments on a contrast between reality and appearance saying the animal is “too much like the painting of a tiger”. Throughout this simile, the author explores the uncanny of the tiger, as it seems perfect and bright but it is dangerous and can attack without control due to its instinct of wildness. The creature’s too much beauty make us approach without realising it is wild. Nature is extremely dangerous and tricky, it’s excess represents a negative aspect which is portrayed by the anaphora “too”.

In conclusion, the author of the poem explores mixed feelings about the animal by comparing the colours and excesses of the animal described in the text. The writer analyzes the concept of deadly beauty by extending this oxymoron all throughout the poem. In Tiger in the Menagerie it is perfectly developed this idea by twisting from the description of the wildness to the perfection of the animal.

Respiration + Gas exchange

October 4th

Respiration + gas exchange

-Activity 11.3 (book page 143)

(Lime water & hydrogen carbonate indicator→ to detect carbon dioxide)

A1; Why it is important to boil the water?

It is important to boil the water because doing so will take away any dissolved air.

A2; Why must the sugar solution be cooled before adding yeast?

The sugar solution must be cooled before adding the yeast because if the yeast is added before it is cooled (when water is hot) it will die without releasing carbon dioxide for the experiment.

A3; What is the liquid paraffin for?

The liquid paraffin is used to separate the yeast from the air (oxygen).

A4; What happened to the limewater or hydrogen carbonate indicator solution in each of your pieces of apparatus? What does this show?

The limewater turned cloudy in apparatus A . We can observe that the yeast respired CO2 and that the limewater absorbed it. However, in the other apparatus the yeast did not respired CO2, and therefore the lime water was clear and couldn´t absorb the carbon dioxide.

A5; I would expect to find ethanol (alcohol), as the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast results in the production of alcohol.

 

-Activity 11.8 (book page 149)

 

What happens when we swallow?

After reading chapter 7 of the IGCSE biology book, we made a test which consisted in eating a biscuit thinking in what happens to the food after we put it into our mouth, and more especifically, when we swallow.

Once we put the food in the mouth, our teeth are responsible for biting into smaller pieces the food (in the case of the incisors and canines) and chewing (in the case of premolars and molars). Then, the amylase (which is secreted by saliva) breaks down starch into maltose, helping the food to dissolve and expand its surface, and making it start to be called a bolus. The tongue is responsible for moving the bolus into the mouth, and then helps to swallow and reaches the esophagus (a long tube that carries food to the stomach). In this way, we can see that chemical and mechanical digestion is present in the mouth, saliva is part of the chemical digestion and the movement of the tongue is mechanical.

News Report

Massive Earthquake hits South Mexico

A hundred kilometers away from Mexico City, in Puebla State, in September 19th, an earthquake struck with a magnitude of 7.1, causing 217 deaths, including 86 in Mexico City, 71 in Morelos and 43 in Puebla state.

           It all began with the collapse of an elementary school, at 9.00 am, where 21 children died and 28 were declared missing. Strong and constant shakes were perceived, until the first catastrophe entered into the scene. However, this one had already started, and was intensified by the fact that the country was still healing from the earthquake in the south of the country, caused by the IRMA hurricane, two weeks before.

          After the actual earthquake, eleven aftershocks followed its lead, causing various trembles with a magnitude of 4. Although the disaster hadn’t taken place in Mexico City, it provoked numerous building collapses there, including various schools in the entire area, and, therefore, most of the children and adults in there, died. Fortunately, great part of the population helped with the earthquake’s consequences.

           Aiming to calm the circumstances of the society, the President Enrique Peña Nieto gave a speech trying to reserve the population from desperation and despair, while the authorities assessed the situation. Besides, the earthquake produced a great economic impact, spending between US$1.000.000.000 to US$10.000.000.000, in new public constructions and medical assistance, added to the help provided by the world leaders. Despite all this, it has been predicted by the US Geological Survey, that many more fatalities are being expected, due to the still missing children and employees, who are being searched, especially, by the Navy marines and soldiers. The situation has not been completely solved, thus, the government will continue informing the news in the following days.

 

By: Abril Terán Frías & Anouk de Laferrere

Biology Project (The Brain)

In Biology, our teacher assigned us a presentation, using the platform ScreenCast O’matic, about Human Physiology. The work consisted in searching for information about the following topics;

  • The organ system that contains your organ
  • Your organ’s main functions
  • If your organ works with other systems to keep the body healthy
  • Which diseases or disorders affect your organ
  • If we can live without the organ

I worked with Trinidad Porretti and Anouk Laferrere. This is our presentation;