Archivos de la categoría Ingles

Respiration + Gas exchange

October 4th

Respiration + gas exchange

-Activity 11.3 (book page 143)

(Lime water & hydrogen carbonate indicator→ to detect carbon dioxide)

A1; Why it is important to boil the water?

It is important to boil the water because doing so will take away any dissolved air.

A2; Why must the sugar solution be cooled before adding yeast?

The sugar solution must be cooled before adding the yeast because if the yeast is added before it is cooled (when water is hot) it will die without releasing carbon dioxide for the experiment.

A3; What is the liquid paraffin for?

The liquid paraffin is used to separate the yeast from the air (oxygen).

A4; What happened to the limewater or hydrogen carbonate indicator solution in each of your pieces of apparatus? What does this show?

The limewater turned cloudy in apparatus A . We can observe that the yeast respired CO2 and that the limewater absorbed it. However, in the other apparatus the yeast did not respired CO2, and therefore the lime water was clear and couldn´t absorb the carbon dioxide.

A5; I would expect to find ethanol (alcohol), as the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast results in the production of alcohol.

 

-Activity 11.8 (book page 149)

 

What happens when we swallow?

After reading chapter 7 of the IGCSE biology book, we made a test which consisted in eating a biscuit thinking in what happens to the food after we put it into our mouth, and more especifically, when we swallow.

Once we put the food in the mouth, our teeth are responsible for biting into smaller pieces the food (in the case of the incisors and canines) and chewing (in the case of premolars and molars). Then, the amylase (which is secreted by saliva) breaks down starch into maltose, helping the food to dissolve and expand its surface, and making it start to be called a bolus. The tongue is responsible for moving the bolus into the mouth, and then helps to swallow and reaches the esophagus (a long tube that carries food to the stomach). In this way, we can see that chemical and mechanical digestion is present in the mouth, saliva is part of the chemical digestion and the movement of the tongue is mechanical.

News Report

Massive Earthquake hits South Mexico

A hundred kilometers away from Mexico City, in Puebla State, in September 19th, an earthquake struck with a magnitude of 7.1, causing 217 deaths, including 86 in Mexico City, 71 in Morelos and 43 in Puebla state.

           It all began with the collapse of an elementary school, at 9.00 am, where 21 children died and 28 were declared missing. Strong and constant shakes were perceived, until the first catastrophe entered into the scene. However, this one had already started, and was intensified by the fact that the country was still healing from the earthquake in the south of the country, caused by the IRMA hurricane, two weeks before.

          After the actual earthquake, eleven aftershocks followed its lead, causing various trembles with a magnitude of 4. Although the disaster hadn’t taken place in Mexico City, it provoked numerous building collapses there, including various schools in the entire area, and, therefore, most of the children and adults in there, died. Fortunately, great part of the population helped with the earthquake’s consequences.

           Aiming to calm the circumstances of the society, the President Enrique Peña Nieto gave a speech trying to reserve the population from desperation and despair, while the authorities assessed the situation. Besides, the earthquake produced a great economic impact, spending between US$1.000.000.000 to US$10.000.000.000, in new public constructions and medical assistance, added to the help provided by the world leaders. Despite all this, it has been predicted by the US Geological Survey, that many more fatalities are being expected, due to the still missing children and employees, who are being searched, especially, by the Navy marines and soldiers. The situation has not been completely solved, thus, the government will continue informing the news in the following days.

 

By: Abril Terán Frías & Anouk de Laferrere

Biology Project (The Brain)

In Biology, our teacher assigned us a presentation, using the platform ScreenCast O’matic, about Human Physiology. The work consisted in searching for information about the following topics;

  • The organ system that contains your organ
  • Your organ’s main functions
  • If your organ works with other systems to keep the body healthy
  • Which diseases or disorders affect your organ
  • If we can live without the organ

I worked with Trinidad Porretti and Anouk Laferrere. This is our presentation;

Sources History

After reading about the Germans, Julia gave us a task in which we had to analize some sources. I was with Francisco Montoya and Trinidad Porretti.

Source 1;

This source, which belongs to an autobiography written by Adolf Hitler in 1924, shows Hitler’s viewpoint on the Treaty of Versailles. He clearly despised the treaty and he thought it was unfair. He considered it a disgrace and humiliation to Germany. Hitler calls it a “highway robbery” as it was unfair and was a stab in the back for the German people, who weren’t prepared to pay such a high price as a result of the Treaty. The treaty caused a scandal among most of the Germans who deeply hated the treaty.

Source 3;

This source, written by a woman who witnessed and lived in the Ruhr during the French occupation, shows as insight to the living conditions of the Ruhr citizens throughout this period of chaos. The French were violent and aggressive. They regarded the Germans with extreme despise and treated them awfully. The German people suffered of massive poverty and starvation as well as living in dreadful conditions during this time. Not only did they struggle through both of these things, but also they experienced a great humiliation due to the French, who ruled in a very strict and cruel manner. They would even punish the slightest detail of a behaviour they didn’t approve of. This source shows the terrible time the Germans underwent during the French occupation of the Ruhr.

Source 4;

This source is a British cartoon in which there are three men, one of them is drowning and the two others are watching from above standing in the ground. The two watchers represent the leaders of Britain and FRance, while the one drowning represents Germany. We can grasp the irony in this poster, as Germany is drowning due to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which left her country crippled. The French and British did nothing to help them or at least give them more time to pay the reparations. In the inferior part of the cartoon we can see Germany asking for help, while Britain and France look with contempt and pride and do nothing to help her. Germany asks for a life-belt, which is lying no more than a few meters away from Britain and France, but still they wouldn’t bother to look for it and throw it to her. This shows that even if both of this powerful countries had the resources to help Germany, they weren’t willing to do it.

Source 9;

This source was written in 1992 by Finlay Mckichan, a British Historian. It is explained that the Germans were not able to realise that the causes of hyperinflation were complex and needed serious measures to be taken. Instead, the measures they took were ineffective. Germans believed that hyperinflation would be solved by simply printing money, but they were wrong. Germany blamed reparations and the Weimar Republic for hyperinflation, as the impose of reparations produced a big economic problem in the country, and were accepted, and consequently paid, by the Weimar Republic. Due to this, middle-class Germans never forgave the Republic, as they believed it created a big impact in the nation.

Source 13;

This source shows a poster of one of the greatest international stars, Marlene Dietrich, who made the 1920s a golden age for the German cinema. The poster is one of Dietrich’s films, “Blonde Venus”, in which it can be seen the protagonist wearing clothes that would not have been considered appropriate years ago, showing that women’s life had become more liberal and permissive. The picture shows the fact that those years meant great culture changes in Germany. People´s night life started being more liberal. Songs and movies about sex, which had been considered inappropriate and dare some years before, started being performed. Moreover, going to clubs became a common pastime. This new era started with the Weimar Republic, as all this would have been banned in the Kaiser’s days.

Biology notes – 9/8

August 9thC

Chemicalsof life (Ch. 4)

Note taking

 

-We call them chemicals of life as it is what we are made of.

-These are carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

Carbohydrates

  • There are small carbohydrates with only one sugar, called monosaccharide. This is soluble in water.

E.g; Glucose

  • An example of monosaccharide  is glucose or fructose.
  • When monosaccharide get together, a disaccharide is formed. This is soluble in water, and therefore, storages energy. An example of disaccharide is starch (plants) or glycogen (animals).
  • When a long chain of many carbohydrates is formed, it is called polysaccharide. This isn’t soluble in water and it is heavy. An example is sucrose.
  • Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy and storages it too. They contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • C-H-O

Lipids

  • C-H-O
  • Function; To store energy as fats.

Proteins

  • C-H-O-Nς