Archivos de la categoría Ingles

Reflect Arc

  1. Search in the internet a video showing an example of a reflex action.

2. Explain the term reflex action.

Reflex action is defined as the automatic or involuntary response to a sensory stimulus which is not under conscious control. Some reflex actions do not need to be learnt, as we inherit them when we are born. These are possible thanks to the reflex arcs, which act on an electrical impulse before the impulses reach the brain.

3. State the structures involved in a reflex arc.

The structures involved in the reflex arc are the sensory neurons, the motor neurones and the relay neurons. When the receptor detects a stimulus, the sensory neuron sends an electrical impulse to the relay neuron which is found in the spinal cord and connect the sensory neuron to the motor neuron. The motor neuron sends electrical impulses to an effector that then produces a response.

4. Explain how the reflex action in your video takes place.

In our video, it was explain how the reflex action takes place if a person accidentally touches a hot object, in this specific case a candle. If a person does this, a pain sensitive receptor cell in this fingertip detects the heat stimulus and triggers off the nerve impulse from here. The impulse travels along a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. The message is processed and the response is generated in the spinal cord itself and then this response travels down through a motor nerve to the muscles of the arm. This receives the response, and the arm muscles of the person contracts (the bicep) and lifting the person’s finger away from the hot object.  


Inversion – Activity

Our language teacher, Pilar, asked us to look out for songs or poems containing inversion sentences. I found a song by Alex and Sierra, called “Little do I know”.

Little do you know
How I’m breaking while you fall asleep
Little do you know
I’m still haunted by the memory
Little do you know
I’m trying to pick myself from piece by piece
Little do you know
I need a little more time
Underneath it all I’m held captive by the hole inside
I’ve been holding back
For the fear that you might change your mind
I’m ready to forgive you but forgetting is a harder fight
Little do you know
I need a little more time….

The Berlin Blockade

After reading about the Berlin Blockade, Lenny asked us to answer some questions and complete a chart about the topic.


The Berlin Blockade, 1948-9 Cold War: Iron Curtain

  1. What was life like in Berlin in the post-war era?

Life in Berlin was harsh after WW2 as this was a devastated city, greatly affected by war. Population had declined massively and the ones who still lived there had lost everything.  People were now poor. In addition, German´s capital was also suffering the tension between the Soviet Union and the USA. Citizens wanted to recover from war, but it was not easy among still existing conflicts and tension in their territory. The fact that the place was divided in zones made population be confused and scared without knowing what would happen next. This scenario became worse after the Berlin Blockade, in which the West had no supply from the USA, GB and FR.


  1. How did Soviet policy towards Berlin differ from that of the West?

Soviet policy towards the Berlin differ from that of the West. Stalin specifically wanted to keep Germany crippled. He did not want Berlin of any other part of Germany to recover completely. However, the West had a very different idea on their minds, they wanted Germany to recover as she was before as without at least rebuilding their industries they would not be able to satisfy the population´s needs.

  1. Why was reform of the German currency a key issue for both sides?

The Western Allies (GB, USSR and USA) introduced a new currency into their new unified territory. Stalin believed the new currency was an attempt against the East economy. This finally lead into the Berlin Blockade, which finally meant the start of the Cold War.


  1. Why was the airlift such a major feat?

The airlift was a major feat as this was the final straw for the beginning of the Cold War. This event showed the rivalry between the two great powers and how this increasing tension was irreversible.


  1. In what respect can the USSR and US be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift?

The US and the USSR can be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift because they were very suspicious of each other although the two countries had expressed they were not willing to go to war. On the one hand, Stalin wanted to cripple Germany as they feared they could recover and eager any conflict, while on the contrary the western nations wanted Germany to at least recover to be able to satisfy their population needs. Moreover, Stalin blocked the supply roads between western germany and their zone in Berlin, as he thought this way Berlin would be totally dependent from the USSR, making the western states give up the capital. However, by 1949 it was clear for the Soviets that the Western Allies would not give up Berlin. The US saw the blockade as a threat to the freedom of Western Europe, finally giving a start to the Cold War.


  1. Why did Stalin eventually agree to talks over the airlift?  

Stalin in the end was forced to reopen communications and remove the blockade as it was clear that this had not made the western countries give up Berlin and, on the contrary,  numbers show that over this period more supplying airlifts got into the zone than before the crisis.


Extension question; Who was more to blame for Berlin becoming a major flashpoint in the Cold War, the Soviets or the Americans?

In my opinion they were both to blame. Although the USSR was the responsible for the last straw, which was the Berlin Blockade, the USA had been responsible for many other factors that increased tension. Firstly, the capitalist country had always been suspicious of Stalin’s actions. Also, he had promised to stop any other country from turning communist (policy of containment). Moreover, the atomic bomb tried without even consulting the soviets also increased the tension. Finally, considering all the previous events of the 1930´s in which these two countries had not had a good relationship either also contributed to the start of the Cold War. They were the two greatest powers which wanted to rule the world with their economies and ideals, but a the same time both had opposite ideas on mind (communism-capitalism…). The two nations contributed the the Cold War as this wouldn’t have happened without both increasing the tension, which is why none of them has more to blame.  




Counterparts By James Joyce – VOCABULARY

After reading Counterparts, by James Joyce, in class we discussed the vocabulary of the story.


the tube: a machine for communicating within a building.

an order on the cashier: official permission for an advance on wages.

snug: a small private room or booth in a public house.

g.p. : a glass (half-pint) of porter.

caraway: a white-flowered biennial herb of the umbel family, with spicey, strong-smelling seeds. The seeds, when chewed, were thought to hide the smell of alcohol, and thus were offered to customers by turn-of-the-century Dublin bars.

manikin: a little man; dwarf.

instanter: without delay; immediately.

the dart: the solution.

stood . . . a half-one:  bought a half measure of alcohol.

the eclogues: short pastoral poems, often in the form of a dialogue between two shepherds.

my nabs (slang): my friend or acquaintance.

Ballast Offices: the location of the Dublin Port and Docks Board

Irish and Apollinaris:  whiskey and soda.

too Irish (slang): exceedingly generous.

chaffed: teased good naturedly.

tincture: a trace; a smattering.

small hot specials whiskey: mixed with water and sugar.

bitter: bitter, strongly hopped ale.

stood to: bought for.

smahan: a smattering; a smidgen.

barracks: buildings on Shelbourne Road for housing British soldiers.

Peony: is a pink whitish flower

That’s the knack:The quality of the gifted one

Put in your gab:to talk

Should examinations be abolished?

As our last oral presentation, Pilar asked us to make a speech developing the topic “Should examinations be abolished?”.


In this speech we will develop the topic, “Should examinations be abolished” and explain why we consider examinations should not be abolished.


As our first argument, pupils have to be evaluated by their teachers to see whether they make progress or not. Some people may argue that exams are not necessary, as they favour kids who have a good memory and techniques in most of the subjects. However, coursework and exams may test a greater range of skills and represent an efficient way to measure the knowledge on topics. Although in some tests memory is one skill needed to get the higher mark, to be able to remember names for example, this ability is not compulsory for getting a passing mark in most of the cases, and in the exemptions it is not the only fundamental skill. Understanding the topic is the obligatory ability, as in most of the test students need to develop answers or use formulas learnt in class but using different variables. By only learning concepts by hard without understanding the subject at all students won’t be able to succeed.


It has been defined that the purpose of a test is typically for teacher and student to determine what the student knows, understands, or is able to do, depending on the content and style of a test. Most tests could be considered status reports, it isn’t a finished picture but a guideline that  give as a result the gaps are that are needed to work on. Nevertheless, exams are also fundamental for government to know in which areas the country, or city needs to deal with.


Examinations also present benefits for students, as exams are a way of learning and will prepare students for the real world. With no exams, pupils would not have any stimulus to study, and therefore, would not be able to acquire knowledge.


So, I strongly consider that examinations should not be abolished as they present lots of benefits for teachers, government, and mostly, students. By testing kids, teachers are able to realise how much students understood and progressed, government can be able to keep a record of the level of education in the nation or area and students itself are able to learn and get prepared for future.